Balsam Fir Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 Size (Mature): 45 to 75ft. height by 20 to 25ft. width
Balsam Fir is a pyramidal, upright evergreen well suited for landscape purposes as well as cut Christmas trees. Needles are typically .5 to 1", can range in color from a dull green to dark green. Grows best in moist, well drained soils, but can tolerate heavy, seasonally wet soil. Does not thrive but can survive in hot, dry conditions. Avoid planting in close proximity to parking lots and brick / glass buildings due to heat radiation. Salt tolerance is better than most other firs. Native to northern US and Canada.
Concolor Fir Cold Hardiness: Zone 4 to 7 Size (Mature): 30 to 50ft. height by 15 to 30ft width
Concolor Fir is conical in shape, with upper branches pointing more upward, while lower branches more horizontal. Beautiful blue-gray-green needles, 1.5 to 2.5" in length, give a "citrus" aroma. Serves as a screening plant or in group plantings. Grows best in rich, moist, well drained gravelly or loam soils. Prefers full sun but can tolerate light shade. Fairly drought tolerant in comparison to other firs. Native to mountainous regions of western North America, from northern Mexico to Idaho.
Fraser Fir Cold Hardiness: Zone 4 to 7 Size (Mature): 30 to 40ft. height by 20 to 25ft. width (usually narrower in northeast US)
Fraser Fir is pyramidal in shape with stiff, horizontal branching. Needles are a shiny dark green with two silver bands on the underside, giving the tree a "two-tone" appearance. Works well in landscape as a focal point or in group plantings. Prefers a well-drained loam soil, often best suited on a sloped grade. Does best in full sun but can handle partial shade. Like Balsam Fir, Fraser Fir does not do well in hot, dry conditions. Native to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.
Eastern Red Cedar Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 9 Size (Mature): 40 to 50ft. height by 8 to 20ft. width (varies greatly based local on soil and climate)
Eastern Red Cedar is naturally columnar, but can be forced into a pyramidal shape with proper pruning. Needles are scale-like and sharp, ranging in color from green to blue-green in summer and changes to bronze-reddish-brown in autumn through winter. Uses in the landscape is versatile; serves well as a hedge, focal point, or group plantings. Prefers well-drained, alkaline soils but is tolerant of poorly drain and acidic soils, as well as the presence of roadside salt. Resistant to deer browsing. Native throughout the eastern US.
European Larch Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 6 Size (Mature): 70 to 75ft. height by 25 to 30ft. width
European Larch is a deciduous conifer (needles drop in fall) that is pyramidal in shape with horizontal branches and drooping branchlets. Overall shape tends to become increasingly abstract with age. Needles are approximately 1.25", and range in color seasonally from bright green in spring, to deep green in summer, turning an attractive yellow in autumn. Requires full sun and ample moisture. Somewhat tolerant of wet soil but prefers good drainage. Although native to northern and central Europe, Larch is often used in natural or park-like settings in the northeastern US in group plantings or as widely spaced specimens.
Norway Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 7 Size (Mature): 40 to 60ft. height by 25 to 30ft. width
Norway Spruce is pyramidal in shape, with horizontal branches and branchlets becoming pendulous with age. Needles are .5 to 1" and dark green. Requires full sun. Prefers moist, acidic, moderate to well-drained soils, but can tolerate heavy clay and poor drainage, although longevity of the plant and overall appearance may diminish. Suitable in harsh climate conditions, and lends well to windbreaks, large-scale privacy screens and commercial plantings. Native to northern and central Europe, but widely naturalized throughout the US, particularly in the Mid-Atlantic and New England.
Picea abies 'Pendula'
Weeping Norway Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 7
Easily manipulated to serve a wide range of purposes in the landscape ranging from focal point to ground cover. The leader of this pendulous form of Norway Spruce can be trained upright on a stake to any manageable height or allowed to run horizontally as a ground cover. Horizontal branching with weeping branchlets are dark green. Light and soil preferences are the same as the Norway Spruce described above.
Engelman Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 6 Size (Mature): 90 to 100ft. height by 10 to 20ft. width
Engelman Spruce is a spire-shaped evergreen with silver-blue .75" needles. Grows best on slopes or in well drained soils, but can tolerate moderately wet and heavy soils. Offers a slender, more elegant appearance in comparison to the similarly colored Colorado Spruce, but is also less tolerant of heavy wind exposure during winter. Most commonly used in the landscape in group plantings as a contrast to green colored plants.
White Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 2 to 6 Size (Mature): 40 to 60ft. height by 10 to 20ft. width
White spruce is pyramidal in shape in its youth, transitioning to spire or columnar as it matures. Needles are .5 to .75" and dull green in color. Grows best in moderately drained soil and full sun, but is tolerant of poor drainage, heavy soil and some shade. Good resilience to wind, heat, cold, drought and crowding makes it one of the most tolerant spruces, adaptable to uses that range from focal points to hedges, windbreaks and mass plantings. Native to northern US and Canada.
Picea glauca 'Densata'
Black Hills Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 2 to 6 Size (Mature): 20 to 40ft. height by 15 to 25ft. width
Black Hill Spruce is a slow-growing, tightly branched, conical variety of White Spruce. Needle size, color and preferred growing conditions are the same as White Spruce. Commonly used in the landscape where its smaller size and slower growth habit is more fitting than that of the straight species.
Meyer Spruce Cold Hardiness: Zone 3 to 6 Size (Mature): 40ft height by 30ft width
Meyer Spruce is a slow-growing evergreen with .5 to .75" bluish-green needles. Pyramidal in shape, with slightly upright branching. Heralded as low maintenance, it is resistant to deer, pests, and disease, and adaptable to both dry and moist soil.